Official police reports indicate that the phenomenon of the domestic crime grows year after year. As causes of this crime psychologists and sociologist rank economic situation, jealousy and alcohol consumption by men. According to them, the state does not offer the opportunity to prevent this crime, but rather has created excessive freedom for “criminals”.
By Endrit Habilaj
Valbona Carçani, 46 years old, mother of two children, was killed with a knife in the center of Tirana by her ex-husband as she was turning back to the house she had rented after the divorce. The incident was recorded on 13 July. Witnesses said that Valbona was stabbed by her ex-husband, Genc Carçani, 47 years old. The body of the 46-year-old remained in the middle of the street for more than an hour, due to the prolonged delay of the forensic experts, who must make the necessary examination for further investigative action. The reason for this monstrous crime was jealousy.
This is one of the murders that shocked all the public opinion in Albania, followed by five similar crimes in the space of two months. In few days were killed five women, five mothers, five wives, five citizens of Albania who unfortunately did not escape death. The macabre events of July-August 2013, shocked the Albanian society once again but above all the Albanian families, showing again in this way the crisis that has Albania. With the most unimaginable calmness husbands raped or even worse killed their wives, mothers of innocent children, leaving them without the love of the parent. But what is happening with the Albanian family?
The sociologist Gezim Tushi says that the family crime has become a very disturbing phenomenon, turned in this way a hearth conflicts. “This high
Gezim Tushi, sociologist
level of crime in the family, in all its typology, in a very extended range has become a very concerning phenomenon. A social phenomenon that is bothering the Albanian society, which is starting to turn into a kind of “ideology” of the Albanian family today, which should be a warm hearth of human communication, is becoming a terrible hearth of all kinds of conflicts, that occasionally have taken tragic character. The crime in family has become a phenomenon that is damaging the family life as an organization of the social life”, says sociologist Gezim Tushi. But, are the Albanian men so jealous, or is this an improvised pretext for taking the lives of dozens of women?
The psychologist Edmond Dragoti says that people who commit crimes are weak and do not have the necessary capacity to control their actions. “People who commit these acts obviously are weak people. The psychological strength is the ability to control ourselves, to control our actions, to recognize and to identify ourselves, to create a much higher status in society etc. Who is strong gets what he deserves and who is weak wants what he can’t have. In this sense, these people that come up to make crimes against the others or make extreme violence to others, especially toward their relatives, are weak. They can be physically strong, but are psychologically weak and here I refer to the spouse who violates the woman, who may be physically weaker than him”, says psychologist Edmond Dragoti.
Despite the motives, the crime in the Albanian families recognize an increase year after year. According to the official police statistics, the year 2013 could be the year with the highest number of murders in the family. Head of the Department for the protection of mothers and children in the General Directorate of Police Alma Gjurgji, gives the last statistics, the causes and preventive measures for crimes within the family. In an extensive analysis, starting from statistics, it seems that we have a significant growth in these last five years of domestic crime. These years coincide with the beginning of the global economic crisis that continues even today to affects significantly the Albania
One of the crime scenes in family
The year 2008 has resulted in a total of 22 murders within the family, relatively a high figure, but later in 2009 it marked a reduction in 16 murders. In 2010 were recorded 20 murders, while the biggest number is recorded in 2011 with 29 murders within the family. Even the year 2012 continues with a high number of crime cases in family, with about 28, while in 2013, only in the first six months are recorded 14 victims of domestic crime. The most concerning is the fact that most crimes occur in rural areas, while urban areas have seen a significant decline. The deficient education system, the lack of information, still backward culture, a very difficult living, disintegration, are the main factors that lead to murders in families in rural areas.
“In conditions of a kind of hybridization of the today’s society, it is difficult to discern deeply inside, so in a way the urban realities in front of the rural realities, or urban crime in front of rural crime, which means that normally in the village should have been more, if we would start from the level of civilization. In fact, paradoxically, the major crimes occur in the city and in civic families, of course even the rural families are not excluded from these problems “- says sociologist Tushi. According to him, the geographical environment is not determinant for these types of crimes. “Nowadays these things are very mobile, very chaotic, sociologically are too vague, undetectable in precise way that there have some factors that can be according to the environment or climate that can influence, but no, I don’t believe that this is the issue. The crime that we have is rural and urban, so in a way very worrying in the village and in the city “- explains sociologist Gezim Tushi.
By having concrete figures, the year 2011 records the 15 murders in rural areas while in urban areas 14. In 2012 the gap is even deeper, where 19 murders were recorded within the family in villages and 9 in cities. The same situation continuous even in 2013 where in the period of the first 6 months were recorded 10 murders in rural areas and four in urban areas. But, which are the main causes that lead the Albanian men to commit massacre in the family. Head of Department for the protection of mothers and children in the General Directorate of Police, Alma Gurgji, lists some of the main motives including jealousy and alcohol consumption by men.
In the last three years, there have been 24 murders motivated by jealousy, while 30 murders due to excessive alcohol consumption. Even the
serious crimes of the recent months seem to have returned to some tough cultural norms of masculine and patriarchal society of the past. A tragic event to mention once again is that of Valbona Lleshi, the mother, the spouse, her life was taken on July 15 in the most dramatic form from her husband Marjan Leshi, who massacred her with a stick in her head and her body, and then with the bread knife. Three minor children were present at the moment of the massacre. Neither the prayers of Valbona nor the screams of the children outside the door, did not stop the violence, till the 42 years old killer-husband Marjan Leshi, killed his wife by stabbing with a bread knife.
The sociologist Gezim Tushi says that the main problem in the Albanian society is the family democratization, the democratization of the relations with the women of the family, which means with the wife, daughter, granddaughter, etc. It is the democratization of the masculine mentality of men. “The worst part of today’s society is masculinization, is this ideology that has become a lymph by circulating in all the society. It circulates in the family, circulates in the state, circulates everywhere and we can’t close our eyes toward this reality, and of this superiority that have the men of this society just because they are male. The men of this society who have remained to their biology, they think that since they are biologically men, this means that they naturally have the right to supremacy over women, the wives, the sisters, the cousins, the children of the female sex “- says Tushi. According to him, this is a very dangerous mentality. “We can’t take steps in the democratization of our society, of our families, in the relationships within the family, if we do not kill this rusty phenomenon in the Albanian society,” – explains the sociologist Gezim Tushi, a professor at the University of Tirana.
Edmond Dragoti, psychologist
Despite the social causes, an important role should play even the police in preventing the serious events. Police officials say that are taken a number of measures in preventing the crime in family, but the figures show that these measures have not been effective. Now is created a special structure to protect children and victims of domestic violence and in this direction are done some legal improvements. There are done also continuous training about police officers who are directly engaged in the prevention of domestic violence, but everything continuous to remain as before, and the figures show that the phenomenon of domestic violence is growing year after year. Regarding the role of the state in preventing this tragic phenomenon, Edmond Dragoti says that the institutions and the nowaday’s governments do not offer alternative solutions, rather they have created spaces for an unlimited freedom for people and especially for the people of crime.
“This chaotic situation that is offered even through aggressive models that shows and demonstrates the government and this we see in parliament, we see it in government, we see it in their press conferences. This aggressiveness model is displayed even toward the public protests. Abuses and scandalous corruption, with very big sizes that exercise the today’s government, all these create a kind of distrust in the values of the state and in general in the system of “Albanian Justice”. The fact that the people who abuse, who kill at higher levels of government are not punished by justice, makes that even the individuals in the families and in our community feel more free in terms of responsibility and social identity. In this sense they express their emotions at high levels of aggressiveness” – says Edmond Dragoti, professor at the Faculty of Social Sciences.
The economic crisis that has involved the Albania ranks it as one of the initiating factors in the domestic crime. Often the difficulty to afford the conditions of the life brings fierce debates that end with murder as the recent cases. Violence has no intellectual, education or gender differences, say the sociologists. Violent people mostly are those who fail to achieve their goals. The family, which should be an example for society in general has lost and is losing day by day this role by turning the society into a conflictual society.
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